Divergent Paths of Integration in the Post-Multicultural Era: Interculturalism in Spain and Civic Integration in France (2019.10)
- 저자 : 이영현, 김남국
- 학술지명 : EU연구
- 발행처 : 한국외국어대학교 EU연구소
- 권호 : 53
- 게재년월 : 2019년 10월
- DOI : 10.18109/jeus.2019.53.3
- 초록 : This paper explores how European immigrant integration policies have changed in the post-multicultural era. We argue that two main factors led to the change of integration paradigm; one, the challenges against multiculturalism, and the other, increase of EU’s influence on national immigration policy. As a result, new integration models now emerged in the form of interculturalism and civic integration. By focusing on Spanish Interculturalism and French Civic Integration, this paper traces two countries’ immigration history, and their reactions against multiculturalism as well as the EU’s growing competence. Then, we examine how the current integration policies aim to create shared values and identities. Two approaches have different perspectives on how to make shared values and norms that can integrate natives and newcomers. While the interculturalism is based upon a premise that culture can be changed with adopting new values from new citizens, there is no room for minorities’ cultures affecting the existing dominant culture in the civic integration policy. We claim that the divergence was due to the distinct histories of building the notion of ‘us’ in relation to ‘others.’ Whereas Spain does not have a strong sense of being “Spaniard” and did not have enough time to construct the meaning of ‘us’ in relation to ‘others’, France had already defined the meaning of “Frenchness” long before the society faced the diversity management.