Multilateralism in the Era of Sino-US Strategic Competition: Balancing the Security-Maximization and Norm-Spreading Function of Alliances (2021.09)


초록 : How has US grand strategy and America’s attitude towards alliances and multilateralism evolved in the post-Cold War era? This article proposes a framework based on the two primary functions of US alliances to analyze its foreign policy. I argue that while the grand strategy of deep engagement has been pervasive in American foreign policy, differences emerge when examining whether each US administration prioritized either the security-maximizing or norm-spreading function of alliances. With the exception of President Clinton, all other US Presidents focused on the former which, in turn, has led to a more consistent foreign policy than conventionally understood. Meanwhile, a recent trend observed in both the Obama and Trump administrations has been America’s desire to share the burden of maintaining the liberal international order (LIO) with others. Combined, America’s approach to alliances and multilaralism has transitioned from being supply-driven to demand-driven in an attempt to induce institutional buy-in from allies favoring the current international system. The recent success of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) provides further evidence for these claims. Such a shift in US views on multilateralism will present both challenges and opportunities for South Korea as it navigates the emerging New Cold War in the Asia-Pacific.